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建筑专业英语文章 满意的话追加分~!!! 急~~~!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

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发表于 2020-1-20 15:50:38 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
写篇1000~2000字的关于建筑的英语文章,一般大专水平就好,然后给翻译中文,在线等。。。

不要消息我,我看到就给分,直接贴上面就好。
是要2000~3000字的哦   麻烦大家啦
建筑专业英语文章 满意的话追加分~!!! 急~~~!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!?
  Building a culture rooted in the natural environment of Habitat
  Different geographical They certainly have different natural environment: topography, sunshine point of view, sun and tides, currents and winds, temperature, pressure, food, land, water, vegetation and so on. As an intermediary between man and nature of the construction, the external should be conducive to the formation of district external environment should be conducive to the protection of the domestic indoor environment Habitat. These buildings, like plants, the roots, making a day, or geographical areas of the natural environment suitable for the requirements of integration with nature.
  In Southeast Asia and South Asia, in China's Hainan Island and Taiwan Island, Coconut Grove dense, hot weather, people with palm leaves, palm-leaf built to adapt to the tropical rainforest of thatched rooms, small, ventilation, cool, lightweight, simple , built a tropical rain forest building.
  In Central Asia, West Asia, in China's western alpine region, people with stones, the mountain has been built on the powerful stone building, take shelter from the wind, blocking snow, heat, warm, building construction has become plateaus. Such as China, Tibet, Qinghai, Sichuan and other ethnic minorities in China's western mountains and on the potential to build a wide variety of mountain building.
  Loess Plateau in China, the Gobi Mobei, low rainfall, dry climate, people use the hillside slopes built tunneling room, built with distinct characteristics of immature soil construction. Gansu Dunhuang Art Exhibition Hall of the building buried in the hillside, the semi-open entrance connected hillside retaining wall, construction features of immature soil is very obvious.
  In the eastern part of the United States, in Australia, in China's south, rainfall, mild climate, people use wood, brick and mountains on the potential, in line with local conditions, build a shade shelter from the rain, ventilation, styling and unique architectural humid areas.
  These architectural forms, of various styles, suitable for different regions of the natural environment, with the landscape, vegetation, terrain together, forming a natural environment is rooted in a variety of architectural culture. Building both rooted in the natural environment, but also subject to the natural environment, this is the architects must follow a basic principle.
  Second, the social space-time caused by environmental differences in the diversification of architectural culture
  Different regions, different countries, different nations have different social and historical patterns. European countries, the Americas, Asia and Africa and other developing countries, land of different religious beliefs, economic development of the different regions have different cultural practices. Habitat in different parts of the social differences in time and space environment, resulting in the architectural culture and the diversity of time and space, resulting in ancient or modern Chinese architectural culture, the Russian architectural culture, architectural culture in Southeast Asia, Europe and the United States Architectural Culture, the African Architectural Culture and so on. Ancient Greek architecture in Europe, North Africa, the ancient Egyptian architecture, the South Asian Association for the ancient Indian architecture, ancient Chinese architecture is the world's architectural and cultural history of ethnic origins. Catholic, Jesus taught, Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, such as the formation and development of religion, a profound impact on the religious beliefs of countries and regions, but also a profound impact on those areas of construction, forming a rich and colorful culture of religious architecture.
  China several thousand years long history, has followed so far, both ancient and extensive, since ancient times by Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Zen, such as the impact of ethical thinking. Especially Confucianism ruled China for 2 000 years, deep-rooted. To this culture of Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and Zen eclectic variety of ideas, together brilliant, independent nations of the world.
  Architectural Culture under certain conditions, can be transformed. Geographical, ethnic and cultural construction under certain conditions, can be transformed into international architectural culture, and international architectural culture can also be absorbed, the integration of the region and the national character of the new architectural culture. In today's world, building a culture of development and progress, both the transformation of the former to the latter, which also includes the absorption and integration of the former. The two also both opposing reunification, complement each other, affect each other and common development, only the protection and development of a variety of architectural culture of all ethnic groups, the promotion of world architectural culture of pluralism, and ultimately to create a "different and" the human society .
  Three Chinese and foreign construction and cultural development and blend
  Architectural Culture in the global "big culture" systems, all nationalities, all geographical construction symbiotic culture in this form the world's architectural culture Symphony. Social process of globalization has brought to the cultural collision with the rendezvous, conflict and blend.
  For thousands of years, the Chinese culture to external sources of long. Buddhist culture have originated in India, Zhang Qian as envoy to the Western Regions of the Western Han Dynasty, Tang Dynasty Master Xuan Zang went to India to learn from their experience Chuan-by, the impact of China's 2,000 years of Buddhism. However, the contents of Buddhism, Buddha, like Maung, the shapes with the Chinese Buddhist temple in cultures, the formation and development of a unique Chinese Buddhist architectural culture.
  As early as the 20th century, 20 years, China's modern architects returned from studying abroad, most of whom are scholars in the United States, they are building at the time of Western academic and cultural concepts and China Architectural Culture nationalistic concept of the double impact, emphasizing cultural exchange between Chinese and Western architecture focused on the architectural style for the first time a creative way to design a number of products, creating a cultural exchange between Chinese and foreign construction of a new era. For example, the first batch of U.S. architect Mr. Lv Yanzhi Canton 20's design Zhongshan Memorial Hall, Dr. Sun Yat-sen in Nanjing and so on, in the Chinese construction industry has played a really ground-breaking effect in stimulating the Chinese and foreign architectural culture of the integration process.
  The early founding of New China, the Chinese government, mechanisms copied the Soviet model, the Chinese all over the building of a group of Russian cultural identity building construction, the formation and development of China's 50's "socialism" of architectural culture. Since reform and opening up, China's open-door once again, the introduction of Western economic management model to imitate, "European style", RTHK construction, post-modernism almost swept the country, the formation and development of China's 80's "reform and opening-up" construction culture. It goes without saying that all countries in the world of architectural culture at that time are subject to local political systems, economic conditions, technical level of restraint, in conflict with each other, mutual exchanges, mutual influence, mutual integration. However, what kind of fusion and exchange with vitality, stand the test of time and space? Only those who learned the essence of eastern and western cultures, integration-oriented areas of national culture and national character of the construction only has great vitality.
  Fourth, cultural exchange between old and modern architectural exploration and the pursuit of
  Ancient and modern cultures, the past serve the present, what? Need to analyze the "ancient" and "today" in the construction of content changes that have taken place. These qualitative change is the social system, production technology, living habits, work, cultural values, building materials in the construction sector caused by the inevitable result. As Mr. Wu Yurong in the evaluation of the French engineer Gustave. Eiffel designed the Eiffel Tower noted: "People are trying to adapt to every human life an art form the new direction of development and to make all the human activities and the rapidly changing era of emotion caused by the new suit."
  To explore ancient and modern blend of traditional architecture and modern architecture combining problem. China's traditional architectural culture has many features, such as the overall layout of buildings, in line with local conditions, and be full of change; architectural style, rich and colorful; space separated, flexible and diverse; interior decoration, pay attention to the connotation; color to use, colorful; garden green, it is implicitly lively, changeable, unique in the world. In the creation of modern architecture, the contemporary architects should learn from ancient architecture and cultural wealth of nutrition, according to the modernization of a wide range of requirements, from the analysis of the various contradictions in the exploration and pursuit of people's lives to adapt to the new direction of development and people's construction activities and the rapid caused by the changing times adapt to new emotions.
  Since the founding of New China, focusing on the succession of Chinese tradition, carry forward the, creative architectural art of the problems the United States experienced a number of exploration and discussion. Experienced the liberation of the early to imitate the "big roof" retro nostalgia period; experienced a critical retro, and copy the Soviet "model" dogmatism stage; experienced the Cultural Revolution, servility to foreigners critical philosophy, the implementation of "dry-base hit," the poor during the transition; experienced early advocate of reform and opening up the West, the popular "Hong Kong style" period. After exploring the difficulties and setbacks, China began to follow the traditional architect, to adapt to function, the use of high-tech, to explore ancient and modern cultures, the realization of the modernization of architectural creation of the correct way.
  In this paper, talking about building a culture of environment and blend only preliminary study, many deep theoretical issues need further study. Our generation of architects should be firmly established the "scientific concept of architectural culture" to the Chinese culture as the main body, to accelerate the construction of culture and environment, and the nation, and society, and the blending process with the times.

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  一 建筑文化根植于人居自然环境之中
  不同的地域自然有不同的自然环境:地形地貌、日照角度、日月潮汐、水流风势、气温、气压、食物、土地、水质、植被等等。作为人与自然中介的建筑,对外应有利于形成小区外部环境,对内应有利于保障人居的室内环境。这些建筑像植物一样,落地生根,合天时,合地利,适宜于地区自然环境的要求,与大自然融为一体。
  在东南亚和南亚各国,在中国的海南岛和台湾岛,椰林茂密,气候炎热,人们用椰树叶、棕榈叶盖起了适应热带雨林的茅草房、小木楼,通风、凉爽、轻盈、简洁,建起了热带雨林建筑。
  在中亚、西亚,在中国的西部高寒地区,人们用石块垒砌、依山就势盖起了石板建筑,避风、挡雪、保温、御寒,筑成了高原山地建筑。如中国的西藏、青海、四川等少数民族在中国西部依山就势建起了各式各样的山地建筑群。
  在中国的黄土高原,漠北戈壁,雨量稀少,气候干燥,人们利用山边、土坡挖洞筑房,建起了具有鲜明特色的生土建筑。甘肃敦煌艺术陈列馆把建筑埋入山坡下,半开敞式入口,山坡挡墙甬道,生土式建筑特征十分明显。
  在美国的东部,在澳大利亚,在中国的南方,雨量充沛,气候温和,人们用木材、砖瓦依山就势,因地制宜,盖起了遮阳避雨、通风透气、造型别致的湿热地区建筑。
  这些建筑形式多样,风格各异,适宜于不同地区自然环境,与风景、林木、地形融为一体,形成了根植于自然环境的各种建筑文化。建筑既要根植于自然环境,又要服从于自然环境,这是建筑师必须遵循的一条基本原则。
  二 社会时空环境差异造成建筑文化的多元化
  不同的地域、不同的国家、不同的民族,有不同的社会历史形态。欧洲国家、美洲国家、亚洲与非洲等发展中国家,国度不同,宗教信仰不同,经济发展状况不同,各地区的文化习俗也不同。不同地区的人居社会时空环境的差异,造成了建筑文化的时空性和多元性,因而产生了古代的或现代的中国建筑文化、俄罗斯建筑文化、东南亚建筑文化、欧美建筑文化、非洲建筑文化等等。欧洲的古希腊建筑、北非的古埃及建筑、南亚的古印度建筑、古代中国建筑是世界民族建筑文化的历史源流。天主教、耶稣教、印度教、伊斯兰教、佛教等宗教的形成和发展,深刻地影响到信仰宗教的国家和地区,也深刻地影响到这些地区建筑,形成了丰富多彩的宗教建筑文化。
  中国几千年悠久的历史文化,沿袭至今,既古老又博大,自古以来受到儒家、道家、佛教、禅宗等思想伦理的影响。特别是儒教统治中国2 000多年,根深蒂固。这种文化把儒、道、佛、禅各种思想观念兼收并蓄,融为一体,光辉灿烂,独立于世界民族之林。
  建筑文化在一定条件下是可以转化的。地域、民族性的建筑文化在一定条件下可以转化为国际性建筑文化,国际性建筑文化也可吸收、融合新的地区与民族性建筑文化。在当今世界里,建筑文化的发展和进步,既包含前者向后者的转化,也包含后者对前者的吸收与融合。这两者既对立又统一,相互补充,彼此影响,共同发展,只有保护和发展丰富多彩的各民族建筑文化,促进世界建筑文化的多元化构成,最终才能建立一个 “和而不同”的人类社会。
  三 中外建筑文化的发展与交融
  建筑文化处于全球“大文化”系统之中,各民族、各地域的建筑文化在此共生共荣,组成了世界建筑文化的交响曲。全球化的社会进程给文化交流带来了碰撞与会合,冲突与交融。
  几千年来,中国受外来文化的影响渊源流长。佛教文化本来发源于印度,随着西汉张骞出使西域,唐代玄奘法师赴印度取经传经,佛教影响中国2000多年。但是,佛教的内容,佛祖的像貌,佛庙的形制与中国文化交融,形成和发展了独特的中国佛教建筑文化。
  早在20世纪20年代,中国近代出国留学归国的建筑师,大多数是留美的学者,他们受当时西方学院派建筑文化观念和中国国粹主义建筑文化观念的双重影响,强调中西建筑文化交融的重点在建筑风格上,第一次创造性地设计出了一批精品,开创了中外建筑文化交融的新纪元。例如由第一批留美建筑大师吕彦植先生20年代设计的广州中山纪念堂、南京中山陵等等,在当时中国建筑界的确起到了石破天惊的影响,推动了中外建筑文化的融合进程。
  新中国建国初期,中国政体、机制照搬苏联模式,中国各地建设了一批具有俄罗斯建筑文化特征的建筑,形成和发展了中国50年代“社会主义”建筑文化。改革开放以来,我国又一次打开国门,引入西方经济管理模式,模仿“欧陆风格”、港台建筑,后现代主义几乎风靡全国,形成和发展了中国80年代“改革开放”建筑文化。不言而喻,世界各国的建筑文化均要受到当时当地政治体制、经济状况、技术水平的约束,相互冲突,相互交流,相互影响,相互融合。然而,什么样的交融和交流具有生命力,经受得起时空的考验?只有那些吸取了东西方文化精髓,融合为本民族的地区与民族性建筑文化,才具有强大的生命力。
  四 古今建筑文化交融的探索和追求
  古今交融,古为今用,用什么?必须分析“古”与“今”在建筑内容上所发生的变化。这些质的变化是社会制度、生产技术、生活习惯、工作方式、文化观念、建筑材料在建筑领域引发的必然结果。正如吴裕容先生在评价法国工程师古斯塔夫。艾菲尔设计的艾菲尔铁塔时指出的:“人们试图让每一种艺术适应人类生活发展的新方向,并且使所有的人类活动与迅速变化中的时代所造成的新情感相适应。”
  古今交融探索的是传统建筑与现代建筑相结合的问题。我国传统建筑文化有着许多特点,如建筑群的总体布局,因地制宜,富于变化;建筑造型,丰富多彩;空间分隔,灵活多样;室内装饰,讲究内涵;色彩运用,五彩缤纷;庭园绿化,更是含蓄活泼,变化万千,在世界上独树一帜。在创作现代建筑当中,当代建筑师应吸取古代建筑文化丰富的营养,按现代化多方面的要求,从分析各种矛盾中探索和追求适应人们生活发展的新方向,并且使人们的建筑活动与迅速变化中的时代造成的新情感相适应。
  新中国成立以来,围绕继承中国传统,发扬民族形式,创作建筑艺术美的问题经历过多少次探索和讨论。经历了解放初期模仿“大屋顶”的怀旧复古时期;经历了批判复古主义,照搬苏联“模式”的教条主义阶段;经历了文革批判洋奴哲学,推行“干打垒”穷过渡的年代;经历了改革开放初期崇尚西方,风靡“欧陆风情”时期。经过反复摸索的艰难曲折以后,中国建筑师开始走继承传统,适应功能,采用高新技术,探索古今交融,实现建筑创作现代化的正确之路。
  本文所谈建筑文化的环境与交融只是初步探讨,许多深层理论问题还须进一步研究。我们这一代建筑师应当牢固地树立起“科学的建筑文化观”,以中国文化为主体,加速建筑文化与环境、与民族、与社会、与时代的交融进程。


China built environment the value of cultural significance

Abstract: This paper discusses the traditional Chinese culture in the built environment and value embodied in, and when the built environment and cultural traditions and modern analysis, elaborated on China built environment of the significance of cultural development for the traditional architectural culture and modern development of the bonding point. In the context of Chinese culture, China's built environment to show with the people and the natural environment for the financial - body balance each other.

Key words:Construction,Environment,Traditional,Modern,Culture

Chinese ancient architecture has a brilliant achievement, in the palace, gardens, construction of space processing, architectural art and material structure of harmony and unity, etc., have excellent creativity and contribution to the formation of the regression of other buildings in the West of special character, in the human construction played an important role in the history. Today, the nature of architectural culture more and more attracted attention. From the Great Hall of the People in Beijing after the founding of the end of the twentieth century buildings, hotels, and other Xiangshan inherited the traditional Chinese architectural art of the essence, but also a combination of modern Western art of architecture new concepts, new technologies, to become both fresh ethnic characteristics, strong characteristics of the times and the construction of cultural monument. China's urban construction regardless of the ancient and contemporary, are in a particular space in cultural phenomenon, its richness and complexity of all the researchers can not be avoided.
Since modern times, Chinese culture began the difficult process of change. From a traditional society to a modern social changes, but also depends on cultural change. If it is said that traditional Chinese culture in history and evolution of the track is more clear, then, the changes in modern times seem very complicated. China's vast territory, different parts of the larger cultural and economic differences.
In modern times, China and the western city undoubtedly follow a different path of development, not only to form their own political, economic and cultural systems, but also formed their own style of urban planning and architectural style. In modern times, with the intrusion of Western powers, as well as imported culture, including architectural culture of the Western urban culture, including the start of the Chinese have an enormous impact. Because of this, including the China Architectural Culture urban culture, but also the beginning of the transition from traditionalism to modernization profound transformation.
Today, in China's architectural theory and creative activity, people fond of tradition and modernity, inheritance and innovation, China and the West, such as a class of architectural culture and the phenomenon of comparison and controversy, it is necessary. But the debate of these issues should be made clear its purpose, that is, it should promote a culture of development and construction, and promote its progress, and not just be satisfied with the basis of these cultural phenomena to make objective and accurate description. Such as: During the discussion of traditional and modern, inheritance and innovation of the issue, many people keen on from the style, form or technology to argue their superiority, the wild, but it is not with the people from their survival and livelihood of the fundamental link go to explore their meaning. During the discussion of Chinese and Western architectural culture, people in the space of Chinese and Western concepts, behavior and attitude toward life and so a detailed comparison, based on the discovery and summed up the Chinese architectural concepts with Westerners differences and their respective characteristics, and then in creation and insufficient emphasis on theory and embody the characteristics of this, of course, is good. On the other hand, people are less human existence from the perspective of the state of traditional and modern, inheritance and innovation, Chinese and Western architecture to make further value judgments. Thus, the "tradition" of "modern" "inheritance" "innovation" "China" "Western" and so the purpose of turning themselves into. Building a culture of comparison and debate should therefore not achieve the purpose of architectural culture can not lead to real progress.
A long time, research in the field of architectural history, there is a "Western Center on" The view that the West is a historical tradition of urban construction, the East Building of non-historical traditions. In弗莱彻尔"comparative Architectural History" on the issue there is a "construction of the tree," with illustrations, the center of the tree trunk is marked with Greece, Rome, Lo Man-style, top of the six main branches are some European and American countries Gothic architecture, Renaissance architecture and modern construction. But Egypt, India, Mexico, China and so before the following number of delicate young branches, the United States on the center of the tree trunk on top, great image to express the author's construction of "Western-centered" thinking. There is no denying that the Western Urban Architecture in the past few centuries is indeed developing rapidly, both in content and form, or in technology and theory, aesthetics are taking shape on the forefront in the world. However, "Western Center on the" point of view is no doubt there is a problem with the development of world architectural history, not just the West, and no hall, which has become more and more consensus building and cultural historians. ① Western post-modernist theorists Architectural Culture Frampton that: traditional architecture, especially folk architecture is the formation of specific locations in the building system with a function and structure is reasonable. Especially in dealing with a number of specific factors, such as ventilation, lighting, insulation, etc. with excellent characteristics. Therefore, we can not simply deny according to the location, physical geography of the specific cultural environment and human development of the local style.

Traditional Chinese architectural culture research, is to open up a theoretical level, the health of Chinese architectural development. Building Cultural Studies is not confined to explain a variety of architectural culture phenomenon, it is to building a culture of value-oriented development. Therefore, the architectural culture should be critical and practice. To provide value-oriented, we must make a value assessment, it is necessary to establish one set of values. Human beings are different from their own cultural backgrounds, different building events are also a certain degree of architectural culture shadow. But culture is also a double-edged sword. On the one hand, are the essence of any culture coexist with the dross, even if it is the essence, but also often can not be separated from the specific conditions of time and space; On the other hand, both the traditional culture may be a heavy cross, stifle the creative potential of modern people can also be become a treasure house of wisdom and enrich our imagination, expand our scale of thinking.
Reality and future requirements of the complexity of life, far from being mechanically copy a certain kind of traditional methods, approaches, they can be met, we must absorb, draw upon their strengths needed to pick up my. In addition, the creation of the characteristics is still a serious topic, require a combination of specific locations, conditions, on the design requirements for specific analysis. Creative methods, the use of "abstract inheritance, moved like a wonderful" principle, may find a new way. Wu Liangyong, a so-called "abstract inheritance" means from the construction of traditional Chinese traditional architectural design principles and the basic theory of the essence of part of the development, applied to the reality created in the past. And the traditional image of the most distinctive part of extracted through abstract and concentrate to improve as a motif, be innovative and creative design in order to inspire the current Formal creation. At the same time, should touch the pulse of China's traditional culture, digging out of the traditional architectural art connotation of time and space, first of all, attention should be paid to the art of architecture and the restoration of cultural values and spiritual function, not only the architectural and artistic works as industrial products and daily necessities, more efforts should not only its immediate physical function. This kind of inheritance, is not a form of plagiarism or the old parts of the permutation and combination, both creative principle of the succession and development, and the image of the drawing and creativity. So that the design of both the spirit likeness seek, nor exclusive to some extent, the details of the shape of a key is based on the location, condition needs. And "want to move too wonderful," "move to" is to their own imagination into the image of the object to, "Miao was" refers to grasp the true expression of the target. ②
Extensive and profound traditional Chinese culture, architecture is the same culture. We should not only from the perspective of the form, and from culture to understand the depth of the traditional, such as: the first level, the traditional beauty of classical architecture in the roof, brackets, shapes portico features, poetry, calligraphy and technology combined with the fitting-out forms , as well as all kinds of doors and windows Prism Grid, decorative patterns; second level, the courtyard-style layout of the space rhythm, natural and architectural environment of complementary design, poetic, full of the humanistic spirit of gardening art, shape, number of paintings, azimuth the appearance of a symbol and metaphor practices; the third level, "harmony between man and nature" of the nature and focus on environmental effects of "feng shui" of thought, yin-yang confrontation, interaction, and the corresponding philosophical thinking and the "body, mind, and gas" competent a concept of health, and so on. Of them contains a wealth of content, deep philosophy and wisdom. ③ which states that the value of traditional to modern needs in our new building works to discover, to perception.
Therefore, we should try to find traditional, modern values, and carry forward in preserving the essence of their traditional at the same time, get rid of its backward, not suited to modern development of things, to seek traditional architectural culture and the modern development of the combination of points, reflect the traditional architecture and cultural respect Heaven and Earth,Humanistic, say the pro-and thinking of materialist dialectics. Carry forward the tradition of architectural culture are also available from traditional architecture design principles, spatial composition, composition methods, ideas have inspired the expression, etc., have to inherit and use the development of innovation, continuous exploration of thinking of traditional architecture and modern architecture thinking, traditional technologies with modern technology, traditional and modern aesthetic of a combination of aesthetic consciousness, the outstanding traditional architectural culture into modern architecture culture.

Notes
①Chen Lixu urban culture and the spirit of the city. Southeast University Press. 2002, p. 142
②Wu Liangyong  broad architecture, Tsinghua University Press. 1989, the first 65-66 pages
③ Yang Yongsheng. Building 100 words, China Building Industry Press, 1998. No. 62

中国建筑环境文化的价值意义

内容摘要:本文论述了中国传统文化在建筑环境中的体现与价值,以及时建筑环境文化传统与现代的分析,阐明了中国建筑环境文化发展的意义,寻求传统建筑文化和现代发展的结合点。在中国的文化背景下,中国的建筑环境表现出了与人与自然环境融为—体,互为平衡。

  关键词:建筑 环境 传统 现代 文化

  中国古代建筑有着灿烂的成就,在宫室、园林、建筑空间的处理、建筑艺术与材料结构的和谐统一等方面,都有着卓越的创造与贡献,形成了迥别于西方建筑的特殊风貌,在人类建筑史上占有重要的地位。时至今日,建筑文化的特质愈来愈引起人们的重视。从建国后的北京人民大会堂到二十世纪末的香山饭店等建筑都继承了中国传统建筑艺术的精华,又融汇了西方现代建筑艺术的新观念、新技术,成为既有鲜活民族特色,又有强烈时代特征的建筑文化丰碑。中国的城市建筑无论古代、当代,都是在特定的空间中产生的文化现象,其丰富性与复杂性令所有研究者无法回避。
  自近代以来,中国文化开始了艰难的转变过程。从传统社会向现代社会的转变,也是有赖于文化的转变。如果说中国传统文化的历史脉络和演变轨迹是较为清晰的话,那么,近代以来的转变似乎显得非常复杂。中国地域广阔,不同地区的文化和经济差异较大。
  在近代以前,中国和西方城市无疑遵循着不同的发展道路,不仅形成了各自的政治、经济和文化制度,而且也形成了各自的城市规划风格和建筑风格。近代以来,随着西方列强的侵入以及文化的传入影响,包括建筑文化在内的西方城市文化,开始对中国产生巨大的影响。由此,包括建筑文化在内的中国城市文化,也开始了从传统到现代的深刻的转型。
  当今,在我国的建筑理论和创作活动中,人们喜欢对传统与现代、继承与革新、中国与西方等一类建筑文化问题和现象进行比较和争论,这是必要的。但是争论这些问题应该明确它的目的,那就是它应当促进一种文化的发展和建构,推动它的进步,而不是仅仅满足于依据对这些文化现象做出客观、准确的描述。如:在讨论传统与现代、继承与革新的问题时,许多人热衷于从风格、形式或技术等方面去争论它们的高下、文野,却不是从它们与现代人的生存和生活的根本联系上去探讨它们的意义。在讨论中西方建筑文化时,人们在对中西方空间观念、行为方式和生活态度等等进行详尽比较的基础上,发现和总结出中国人同西方人建筑观念的差异和各自的特点,进而在创作和理论中充分强调和体现这种特点,这当然是好的。但是另一方面,人们却较少从人的存在状态的角度对传统与现代、继承与革新、中国与西方的建筑做出更进一步的价值判断。于是,“传统”“现代”“继承”“革新”“中国”“西方”等等本身变成了目的。建筑文化的比较和争论因此就没有达到应有的目的,不可能导致建筑文化的真正进步。
  长期以来,在建筑史研究领域中,存在着一种“西方中心论”的观点,即认为西方城市建筑是历史传统,东方建筑是非历史传统。在弗莱彻尔的《比较建筑史》上刊有一幅“建筑之树”的插图,树的中心主干标明是希腊、罗马、罗蔓式,上端的6根主分枝分别是欧美一些国家哥特式建筑、文艺复兴建筑和近代建筑。却把埃及、印度、墨西哥、中国等都摆在下面一些纤弱的幼枝上,把美国放在这棵树的中心主干的顶端,极为形象地表达了作者的建筑“西方中心论”思想。无可否认,西方城市建筑在近几个世纪以来确实发展迅速,无论在内容和形式上,还是在科技和理论上、美学形态上都走在世界的前列。但是“西方中心论”的观点无疑是有问题的,世界建筑历史的发展,决不只此西方而别无殿堂,这已成为越来越多的建筑文化史家的共识。①西方后现代主义建筑文化理论家佛朗普顿认为:传统建筑特别是民俗建筑是在特定地点形成的建筑体系,具有功能和结构上的合理性。特别是在处理一些具体因素,如通风、采光、保温等方面具有优良的特点。所以,不能简单否定依地点、体具体的地理情况和人文文化环境发展起来的地方风格。

  对中国传统建筑文化的研究,是为了在理论层面上开拓一条中国建筑的健康发展之路。建筑文化学并不局限于解释各种建筑文化现象,它是要为建筑文化的发展提供价值导向。因此,建筑文化应该是批判的与实践的。要提供价值导向,先要作出价值评判,所以必须树立一种价值观。不同的人类都各有自己的文化背景,不同的建筑事件也都有一定的建筑文化影子。然而文化也是一柄双刃剑。一方面,任何文化都是精华与糟粕并存,即便是精华,也往往离不开具体的时空条件;另一方面,传统文化既可能成为一副沉重的十字架,扼杀现代人的创造潜能,也可以成为一座智慧的宝库,丰富我们的想象,扩大我们思维的尺度。
  现实及未来生活的复杂要求,远非机械地搬用某一种传统方法、途径,就可以得到满足的,必须博采所长,取我所需。另外,对于本特色的创造仍然是一个严肃的课题,需要结合具体地点、条件,对设计要求作具体分析。在创作方法上,采用“抽象继承、迁想妙得”的原则,可能会找到一条新途径。吴良镛提出所谓“抽象继承”是指从建筑传统中,将传统建筑的设计原则和基本理论的精华部分加以发展,运用到现实创作中来。并且把传统形象中最有特色的部分提取出来,经过抽象,集中提高,作为母题,予以新意,以启发当前设计创作形式美的创造。同时应当摸到中国传统文化的脉搏,挖掘出传统建筑艺术的时间和空间内涵,首先是要重视和恢复建筑艺术的文化价值和精神功能,不能只把建筑艺术作品当作工业产品和生活用品,更不应当只抓其眼前的物质功能。这样的继承,并非形式的抄袭或旧零件的排列组合,既有创作原理的继承与发展,又有形象的借鉴与创造。使设计既求神似,也不排斥某种程度、某一细节的形似,关键是根据地点、条件的需要。而“迁想妙得”,“迁想”是将自己的想象力深入到对象的形象中去,“妙得”是指把握对象的真正神情。②
  中国传统文化博大精深,建筑文化也是同样。我们应不仅从形式的角度,而且从文化的深度来理解传统,譬如:属于第一层面的,传统建筑中古典美的屋顶、斗拱、柱廊的造型特征,诗文、书画与工艺结合的装修形式,以及各式门窗菱格、装饰纹样;第二层面的,庭院式布局的空间韵律、自然与建筑互补的环境设计,诗情画意、充满人文精神的造园艺术,形、数、画、方位的表象与隐喻的象征手法;第三层面的,“天人合一”的自然观和注重环境效应的“风水”思想,阴阳对立、互动、相应的哲学思维和“身、心、气”合一的养生观,等等。它们之中蕴含着丰富的内涵、深邃的哲理和智慧。③这些都阐明,传统对现代的价值还需要我们在新建筑的创作中去发掘,去感知。
  因此,我们应当努力去寻找传统的现代价值,在保存和发扬其传统精华的同时,摒弃其落后的,不适应现代发展的东西,寻求传统建筑文化和现代发展的结合点,体现传统建筑文化尊天地、重人本、讲亲和的唯物辩证思想。弘扬传统建筑文化还可从传统建筑的设计原理、空间组合、构图手法、意念表达等方面有所启迪、有所继承和运用、有所发展创新,不断探索传统建筑思维与现代建筑思维、传统技术与现代技术、传统审美与现代审美意识的结合方式,把优秀的传统建筑文化结合到现代建筑文化之中。

  注释
  ①陈立旭都市文化与都市精神.东南大学出版社.2002 第142页
  ②吴良镛,广义建筑学,清华大学出版社.1989,第65—66页
  ③杨永生.建筑百家言,中国建筑工业出版社,1998. 第62页

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